Types of Schengen Visas

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Schengen visas are provided to foreigners for access to the Schengen Area of Europe. The Schengen Area includes 26 countries that have agreed to allow their citizens to travel freely across internal country borders.

These countries include all of the European Union except Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania, and the United Kingdom. In addition, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein are members of the Schengen Border Agreement.

3 Main Types of Schengen Visas

  1. Uniform Schengen Visas (USV)
  2. Limited Territorial Validity Visas (LTV)
  3. National Visas

The embassy or consulate of your Schengen destination country issues  the appropriate visa depending on the nature of your travel. Schengen Visa Info notes that "there are different restrictions that apply to the particular visa in accordance to the nature of traveling and other relevant circumstances." Specific visas that fall under the above visa categories include tourist visas, business visas, student visas, working visas, and transit visas.

1. Uniform Schengen Visa (USV)

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Uniform Visas enable you to travel and reside in the Schengen Area for up to 90 days each six month period, which starts from your date of entry.

USV's apply to three different categories:

  • Category "A" (Airport Transit Visa) — Necessary visa for individuals traveling from one non-Schengen country to another through a Schengen country airport

  • Category "B" (Transit Visa) — Allows individuals to travel through multiple Schengen countries to a non-Schengen country by car, coach, or plane, as long as travel lasts no more than 5 days

  • Category "C" (Short-term Visa) — Can be provided for single entry, double entry, or multiple entry,  depending on the purpose of your travel

2. Limited Territorial Validity (LTV) Visa

Limited Territorial Validity (LTV) Visas permit you to travel only within the Schengen country that has issued your visa or in the countries you specify when applying for the visa. The visa will not be valid in any other Schengen Area countries.

This type of visa is generally only issued for international obligations or for humanitarian reasons. It is considered an exception to a Uniform Visa.

3. National Visa

National Visas ("D" category visas) are granted to individuals who are studying, working, or residing permanently in a Schengen Area country. These visas are valid for those residing in a specific country for a specified period of time (with plans to return home once the visa expires), but you may also acquire a multi-entry visa to travel to other countries in the Schengen Area.airport

To qualify for a multi-entry visa, you must meet one of the following requirements:

  • Be an international student in a program that grants Schengen visas, or be about to start full-time studies in a Schengen country.

  • Be teaching at a higher education institution or research center in a Schengen country.

  • Be a professional traveling to a Schengen country with the purpose of sharing your expertise.

  • Be traveling in the Schengen Area and experience an emergency, such as a medical condition, that prevents departure at the end of your National Visa.

When applying for a Schengen visa, it is best to apply at the embassy of the country in which you will be spending the majority of your time.

At your appointment, you must have the following documents:

  • A valid travel document such as a passport

  • A completed visa application form

  • Two passport photos

  • Proof of accommodation

  • Proof of means of subsistence

  • An itinerary or round-trip ticket reservations

  • A travel health insurance policy that covers you in the Schengen Area

In addition, supporting documentation including the purpose of your trip and a letter of invitation can help you obtain a visa. Check the country with which you are applying for the visa for the minimum required coverage for your health insurance policy, as well as any additional application requirements.

For more information on how to obtain a Schengen visa, check out the visa application website. It contains links to the different varieties of visas and specific requirements for each country in the area.

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